Denmark coast

Image from Source by Levin Kohrt

Kalundborg (DK)



Kalundborg's industrial symbiosis, involving 9 companies from various sectors, is supported by Kalundborg Utility, which provides water. However, two biotech firms plan to increase their production capacity by 2028, which will require KCR to diversify its water sources to provide various fit-for-purpose water qualities. Currently, the biotech industry uses groundwater and treated surface water, but a mix of sources such as water reuse, seawater desalination, and rainwater are envisioned to meet the estimated demand by 2028. This study aims to show how different water sources can supply various industries with varying water qualities, model the water-energy nexus of using different sources and qualities, stress test current water infrastructure, and devise adaptation strategies for new AWR connections.


Objectives as part of RECREATE:

  • Set up an integrated water management strategy for water supply of industries in the Kalundborg Symbiosis via multiple AWR with the aim of providing the industries with the quality of water needed for different industrial processes in a long-term, sustainable way. 
  • Minimise the overall environmental impact from both water extraction from conventional sources as well as from discharged WWTP effluent.
  • Create a new entity in the Kalundborg Utility Group, which would be an industrial water supply company, to provide circular activities in water management, and separating industrial water needs from potable water needs for the public.

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